According to AAA, a typical driver makes 20 decisions per mile and has less than half of a second to respond to changes in the road. This fact has obvious implications for driver safety.
These factors can be challenging for the most competent drivers. However, when a driver’s thinking skills are a little slower, or their physical response is delayed due to changes in health and functioning, this driver may be courting disaster.
AAA and The National Institutes of Health have identified some of the warning signs that older drivers demonstrate when their driving skills are becoming a potential safety risk:
Failing to yield the right-of-way
Difficulty staying within a travel lane
Difficulty in judging the time or distance required to turn safely across traffic
Failing to come to a complete stop at a stop sign, or missing a stop sign altogether
Driving too slowly in an attempt to compensate for slowed reaction time
Driving too fast due to lack of recognition of the actual speed or a fear of being told they drive too slowly
Getting lost or disoriented in familiar places
A reluctance to drive alone (having someone else along to be a “co-pilot” is reassuring)
Other drivers frequently honk at the individual
Confusing the gas and brake pedals
Lifting the leg to move from one pedal to another instead of keeping the heel on the floor and pressing with the toes (this can indicate decreased leg strength)
Signaling incorrectly, failing to signal or failing to check blind spots when changing lanes
Unexplained scratches or dents on the vehicle
More than one minor “fender bender” within a reasonable period of time
Stopping in traffic for no apparent reason
One of the quickest ways to determine if any of these signs are occurring is to observe patterns of driving by riding along with the individual on routine trips over a period of time. Speaking with others who have been passengers, or with neighbors who may have observed the driver’s ability to back out of a garage or driveway, can lend additional insight into the driver’s skills. Observing the exterior condition of the car, the walls and doorway of the garage, and the mailbox may also reveal clues about driver safety.
If an older driver exhibits one or more of the above warning signs, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the driver’s license should be revoked. An older driver may benefit from taking a mature driver improvement course, in order to learn how to modify unsafe driving habits.
In Pennsylvania, those who are age 55 and older are eligible to receive a 5 percent discount on their insurance rates upon completion of the course. To maintain the discount, the course may need to be repeated every three years. Check with your personal insurance carrier for details.
PennDOT has approved several basic and refresher mature driver improvement courses: https://www.dmv.pa.gov/Driver-Services/Mature-Drivers/Pages/Mature-Driver-Improvement-Course.aspx. In-person and online courses are available with minimal or no testing requirements.
A professional driving assessment is another option to help determine if an individual is qualified to drive and/or if there are personal or vehicle modifications which can be made to improve driver safety.
In the Cumberland County area, driving assessments are available at Penn State Hershey Medical Center (717-531-7105). An occupational therapist will conduct an initial assessment of an individual’s activities of daily living, community mobility, scan/reaction time, visual perception, and other abilities which are necessary for safe driving. This assessment is billed to insurance. If the therapist determines that an individual’s skills are adequate for driving, then a “behind-the-wheel” evaluation is scheduled for a different day. The cost for this second part of the assessment is billed in 15 minute increments at a rate of $96/15 min.
In the past two weeks we’ve covered some of the statistics related to older drivers, potential signs of driver impairment and a couple of options for addressing suspected impairment. Initiating a discussion about driver safety with an older adult is probably the most difficult step in this process. Next week’s article will address how to have “the talk.” https://keystoneelderlaw.com/driving-safety-and-aging-part-iii/
Karen Kaslow, RN, BSN